Army

August 9, 2013

Counter Intelligence Corps in Korean War

The 441st CIC Team attached to the 24th Infantry Division was the first CIC team to enter the Korean conflict. These Soldiers had just finished approximately six weeks of continuous enemy engagement and withdrawing actions. Persons in the foreground were Korean interpreters.

 

July 27 marked the 60th Anniversary of the Armistice ending the Korean War. It has been described as a series of intelligence failures, most notably the failure to predict the North Korean invasion of South Korea on June 25, 1950, and failure to fully recognize the potential Chinese intervention in the war. In honor of the Armistice, the following is a story of one of many successful intelligence operations during “The Forgotten War.”

When North Korean forces invaded South Korea in late June 1950, the U.S. Army had little in the way of an intelligence organization in Korea; only a small Korean Liaison Office had been maintained there since the end of World War II. In Japan, however, the 441st Counter Intelligence Corps, or CIC, Detachment was the largest single intelligence component within the Far East Command, with operational control of all CIC detachments in Japan.

By early July, the 441st had sent enough personnel and equipment to Korea to constitute five CIC detachments attached to the Eighth Army and its divisions. By the end of September 1950, the 441st had sent 14 CIC detachments, amounting to almost 240 personnel. Given widespread guerilla activities, these detachments devoted most of their energies to the collection of Human Intelligence.

Back in Japan, the 441st played an indirect role in the success of key combat operations, particularly the Inchon landings in September 1950. Even prior to the war, 441st personnel were targeting Japanese subversive elements. CIC Agents were particularly interested in Korean nationals living in Japan, due to their susceptibility to indoctrination by Communist sources.

As Gen. Douglas MacArthur prepared the United Nations, or U.N., Forces for the surprise landings, CIC agents in Japan monitored the activities of Korean nationals, many of whom favored the North Korean regime. Efforts to maintain secrecy of the upcoming surprise landings, code named Operation Chromite, netted several Korean espionage agents in American base areas and in staging areas. Just a week prior to the invasion, the 441st scooped up nearly 200 enemy agents of several interlocking spy rings and arrested the head of the main North Korean spy ring.

These arrests severely curtailed the transmittal of information to North Korean authorities. A key component of the operation was Capt. Leroy Newland’s compilation of a Korean-Japanese-English language transliteration system which allowed CIC agents to identify more readily suspected enemy agents. Another key figure in the operation was Lt. Col. Gero Iwai, executive officer of the 7th District, 441st CIC Detachment in Tokyo. Iwai accurately evaluated, correlated and edited large volumes of intelligence reports related to the North Korean Espionage Ring.

The breaking of the North Korean spy ring in Japan was not the only intelligence operation supporting Chromite. The Central Intelligence Agency and the U.S. Navy relied on South Koreans to reconnoiter the port and confirm that the landing approach was practicable and that the port itself was secured by a small North Korean force.

Perhaps the real security of Chromite, however, was the unexpected audacity of the plan itself. Although North Korea knew the U.N. was assembling a strike force for a sea landing somewhere in Korea, Inchon was deemed too risky a location for a U.N. landing.

As a result of successful intelligence operations, MacArthur’s surprise landing at Inchon proved a critical event that drastically changed the early course of the war, at least prior to the Chinese intervention. The North Korean’s stretched supply line was broken, allowing U.N. forces to push them completely out of and recapture the South Korean capital, Seoul.




All of this week's top headlines to your email every Friday.


 
 

 
Julianne E. Cochran

Help wanted: Enlisted aides in valued roles for Army leaders

Julianne E. Cochran An Enlisted Aide Training Course instructor shows a student the specifics of setting up a general officer’s uniform during a practical exercise. WASHINGTON – Enlisted aides are considered an elite group ...
 
 

CWFC supports Fort’s civilian employees

Fort Huachuca’s Civilian Welfare Fund Council (CWFC) uses the money derived from vending machines to support federal employees. Each month a percentage of the money from post snack and soda vending machines goes into a secured CWFC account to provide morale and recreational activities to civilian employees. According to Carmen Chastain, CWFC president, these activities...
 
 
Photo courtesy of Richard Grosinsky

Hunter unmanned aircraft system ends history here, leaves long legacy

Photo courtesy of Richard Grosinsky From that first Hunter unmanned aircraft system training class that graduated here April 27, 1992, to its final flight here July 10, Fort Huachuca’s UAS program continues to build on the vi...
 

 

Official participation in #GiveThem20 campaign not authorized

The Office of the Judge Advocate General has been notified by the DOD Standards of Conduct Office about an online social media campaign titled”#GiveThem20.” The action is supported by, and draws attention to, a national nonprofit organization called American Corporate Partners. The campaign is online at GiveThem20.org. The campaign proposes video recording yourself or a...
 
 

OPM announces steps to protect federal workers, others from cyber threats

WASHINGTON, D.C. – U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) announced July 15 the results of the interagency forensics investigation into a recent cyber incident involving federal background investigation data and the steps it is taking to protect those impacted. Throughout this investigation, OPM has been committed to providing information in a timely, transparent and accurate...
 
 
U.S. Army photo

Military Intelligence – Moment in MI history

Maj. Gen. Ralph Van Deman – Namesake of the East Gate U.S. Army photo Maj. Gen. Paul Menoher, commander of the US Army Intelligence Center, and Command Sgt. Maj. Art Johnson unveil the memorialization plaque at the Van Deman ...
 




0 Comments


Be the first to comment!


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>