Army

October 11, 2013

Military Intelligence – this week in history

Tags:
Ruth Quinn, Staff Historian
USAICoE Command History Office

Two courageous lieutenants launch aerial intelligence mission

Members of the 8th Aero Squadron pose for a picture at Saizerais Aerodrome, France, on Armistice Day, Nov. 11, 1918.

Oct. 9, 1918
Astonished onlookers watched the first manned hot air balloon fly for a distance of five miles over Paris in 1783.

Benjamin Franklin, in Paris at the time, immediately recognized a potential military use for the technology: “such as elevating an engineer to take a view of an enemy’s army, works, etc., conveying intelligence into, or out of a besieged town, giving signals to distant places, or the like.”

Less than one hundred years later during America’s Civil War, Franklin’s vision became reality as Thaddeus Lowe telegraphed the location of enemy troops from his tethered hot air balloon to commanders on the ground, allowing them a “birds-eye-view” of the battlefield.

In 1903, the Wright brothers successfully flew the first powered airplane and the Army bought its first aircraft six years later. In 1915, conscious of the rapid advancements in aviation technology in Europe due to wartime demands, Congress established the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, or NACA. This group wanted to close the gap that American engineers had in aircraft design and production due to lack of experience, compared to their European counterparts. They were too late. When the United States entered World War I, the fledgling First Aero Squadron took the tenuous lessons learned during the Punitive Expedition and tried to make up for lost time – but they were three years behind.

However, the war would not wait. Pilots were recruited and trained. Observers were found in other fields and trained as aerial observers and photographers. The military scrambled together a fleet of aircraft. As historian Diane Hamm wrote in Military Intelligence: Its Heroes and Legends, “The story of the beginnings of U.S. Army photo intelligence is not one of a single individual, but rather, of a group of heroes: the pilots, observers, and cameramen who almost daily for a period of six months, between April and October 1918, risked their lives to gather vital information for the Allies. Theirs was a baptism under fire.”

A World War I aerial photographer/observer sights his camera from the rear cockpit of an Army airplane.

Two of these men were 1st Lt. Edward Moore of Columbia, Mo., and 1st Lt. Gardner Allen of Milwaukee. They were both only 21 years old in 1918 and members of the 8th Aero Squadron, which activated in the summer of 1917 at Kelly Field, Texas. The men were sent to Selfridge Field, Mich., for three and one half months of training. Moore was a flight cadet, training to become a pilot. He learned to solo on a Curtiss JN-4 “Jenny” trainer, but would have to learn to fly missions on a precise course with consistent air speed and altitude within range of artillery in order for his observer to be able to take usable photos. Allen was trained as an observer. He would have had to learn how to operate the camera strapped to the side of an airplane, using a stop watch to ensure the correct overlap of each exposure.

The 8th Aero Squadron was ordered to France in July 1918. They were equipped with the Dayton-Wright DH-4 aircraft, only the second squadron equipped to reach the Western Front. They received two more weeks of intensive training on flying over enemy territory. Their training, skills, courage, and sheer grit, would all come into play on Oct. 9, 1918, when they found themselves under attack by German planes in the midst of a photographic mission. Both men received Distinguished Service Crosses for extraordinary heroism in action near Thiaucourt, France on that day; their citations were almost identical. 1st Lt. Edward Russell Moore, pilot, along with 1st Lt. Gardner Philip Allen, observer…

“took advantage of a short period of fair weather during generally unfavorable atmospheric conditions to undertake a photographic mission behind German lines. Accompanied by two protecting planes, they had just commenced their mission when they were attacked by eight enemy planes which followed them throughout their course, firing at the photographic plane.  1LT Moore, with both flying wires cut by bullets, a landing wire shot away, his elevators riddled with bullets, and both wings punctured, continued on the prescribed course, although it made him an easy target.  1LT Allen was thus enabled in the midst of the attack to take pictures of the exact territory assigned, and he made no attempt to protect the plane with his machine guns.  Displaying entire disregard for personal danger, and steadfast devotion to duty, both officers successfully accomplished their mission.”

Both officers survived the mission and the war, and lived long lives. They were honored with induction into the Military Intelligence Corps Hall of Fame in 1988.




All of this week's top headlines to your email every Friday.


 
 

 
Gabrielle Kuholski

Antiterrorism Exercise assesses installation readiness, reinforces important relationships

Gabrielle Kuholski First responders with the Fort Huachuca and Whetstone Fire Departments work together to get a wounded Soldier into an ambulance during the full scale exercise, Apache Warrior 2013, Tuesday. These first respon...
 
 

Labor Day Safety Message

Labor Day marks the traditional end of the summer season and celebrates the American worker and the contributions they make to our great country. I want to commend you on your efforts to control heat injuries through another hot summer. Your diligence and care for teammates contributed to an overall 20-percent decrease in accident fatalities...
 
 
Gabrielle Kuholski

VA clinical psychologist raises military sexual trauma awareness

Gabrielle Kuholski Michael Moore, Ph.D., military sexual trauma coordinator at the Southern Arizona Veterans Affairs Health Care System in Tucson, presents a session on military sexual trauma, or MST, in the Murr Community Cent...
 

 

Glass recycling now available in Sierra Vista

SIERRA VISTA – Clean glass bottles and jars can be dropped off for recycling at the new Sierra Vista Glass Recycling Depot as part of the city’s trial glass recycling project. The Glass Recycling Depot, located in the parking lot of the Pedro Castro Government Maintenance Center, is a glass collection point that is separate...
 
 
Maranda Flynn

FH Community Spouses’ Club accepting new members, shares plans for coming year

Maranda Flynn Fort Huachuca Community Spouses’ Club board members, Katrina LaDue and Lesley Hocker, (left foreground and background), assist new club members, Dana Edwards and Sandi Weishaupt, (right foreground and background...
 
 

Retiree Council shares news, notes Did you forget to care for your Family?

No one forgets to care for his or her Family on purpose. It just happens – more often than one might think when it comes to the military Survivor Benefit Plan, or SBP. Most often, retired Soldiers don’t know the federal law and the time limits it imposes on maintaining their SBP elections. If a...
 




0 Comments


Be the first to comment!


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>


Directory powered by Business Directory Plugin