Originally developed as a private venture by Curtiss-Wright, the X-19 was intended to demonstrate the practicality of the tilt-rotor concept. It was also noteworthy for being the last aircraft of any kind manufactured by Curtiss-Wright.
The X-19 was also used to explore the general feasibility of vertical take off and landing operations for such missions as the evacuation of personnel, missile site support, delivery of high priority cargo, counter-insurgency operations, reconnaissance and close support operations.
Within the limited flight envelope explored by the X-19 prior to its demise, the aircraft demonstrated the general feasibility of the tandem tilt-rotor concept. The program successfully verified the dynamic and longitudinal stability, hover, and transition performance of the basic design. Although the tandem tilt-rotor design would not find further application, much of the data proved useful during the development of the XV-15 and later V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft.
Two X-19s were built — the first was destroyed in an accident on Aug. 25, 1965, and the second aircraft was never completed. After all the useable components from the second aircraft were removed, the airframe was stored at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland.